[simnor_toggle heading=”Absorption of high-absorption swabs” text=”Due to the cellulose filling, high-absorption non-woven swabs are 4 times more absorbent than gauze swabs.” onload=”closed”][simnor_toggle heading=”Absorption of non-woven fabric swabs” text=”Non-woven fabric swabs demonstrate high hygroscopic properties – the absorption of a non-woven 4-ply swab is equal to the absorption capacity of an 8-ply gauze swab.” onload=”closed”][simnor_toggle heading=”Acrylic Glue” text=”A synthetic adhesive substance is obtained in the process of polymerisation of acrylic acid and its esters. It demonstrates a low risk of allergic reaction and skin irritation.Dressings with acrylic glue are easily removable from the skin, without leaving traces. The glue is used in long-term dressings and dressings for sensitive skin.” onload=”closed”][simnor_toggle heading=”Actions after exposure” text=”Precise cleaning of a wound and protecting it with dressing
- Reporting the exposure:
- Date and time of the incident
- Description of procedure involving exposure
- Description of exposure: quantity and type of potential infectious material
- Information on the patient
- Immunological resistance against HBV
- Assessment of exposure and prophylaxis recommended by an infectious diseases specialist
” onload=”closed”][simnor_toggle heading=”Allergy to latex” text=”A symptom of allergic reaction to latex proteins is usually skin contact inflammation. Local blisters, erythema and oedema with drying and numerous fractures occur at the site of latex product contact with the skin.
Other symptoms include sneezing, colds and difficulties in breathing. In extreme cases, anaphylactic shock may occur.” onload=”closed”][simnor_toggle heading=”Application of the plaster bandage” text=”
- Soak the roll with the plaster bandage in water at room temperature, i.e. about 22°C.
- Squeeze lightly.
- Apply like a band for about 2 minutes.
- The preliminary binding time for a fast-binding plaster bandage is 5-6 minutes, for a slow-binding plaster bandage: 12 minutes.
- The final binding time is 15-20 minutes.
” onload=”closed”][simnor_toggle heading=”Applying the central access.” text=”
- Surgical hand washing.
- Hygiene of hands should be maintained before and after touching the skin in the place of injection, manipulation of central catheter and vascular line.
- The operator performing the central catheterisation should be dressed in a cap, a mask and gloves.
- When using the touchless procedure for application of the peripheral catheter, examination gloves may be used.
- When applying the arterial and central catheters and replacing the catheter, sterile gloves should be used, and the patient should be covered with a sterile drape.
- Sterile dressings should be applied.
” onload=”closed”][simnor_toggle heading=”Bacteria on the skin” text=”Within one cm2 of human skin, from 100 to 100 000 bacteria colonies are found. Agents used for disinfection of the surgical field remove from 100 to 1 000 bacteria colonies from 1 cm2; however, they do not destroy the resistant forms. Within 5 hours following disinfection, the quantity of microbes returns to the original level.
Therefore, it is recommended to use sterile surgical foil and barrier surgical drapes.” onload=”closed”][simnor_toggle heading=”Double gloving” text=”Use of double gloves, or double donning, contributes to the reduction of infection risk. Application of such a solution is recommended in cases where health care professionals are exposed to:
- procedures with exposure (potential infection with HIV, hepatitis B),
- potential glove punctures (prosthetic orthopaedic surgery, obstetrics, heart and chest surgery and gynaecological operations.
When applying the double-donning gloves, the best solution is to use the powder-free gloves and the coloured internal gloves for faster detection of perforation.
Once the gloves are impaired, they should be replaced immediately.” onload=”closed”][simnor_toggle heading=”Elastometric adhesive” text=”Contains synthetic resin, increasing the adhesive properties. It may contain softening agents and an additive of zinc oxide. It is used in fabric adhesive tape.” onload=”closed”][simnor_toggle heading=”Fabric adhesive tape” text=”The carrier of this adhesive tape is a viscose fabric. It shows high longitudinal and lateral resistance. It is used for fixing dressings and minor medical devices.” onload=”closed”][simnor_toggle heading=”Fabric adhesive tape with dressing” text=”The carrier of this adhesive tape is a viscose fabric. It has a viscose central absorptive layer protected with polyester mesh. It is used for wounds with medium and moderate exudate.” onload=”closed”][simnor_toggle heading=”Factory of gloves” text=”Since 2006, Mercator Medical (Thailand) Ltd. has been operating as a part of the Mercator Medical Group, constituting the first Polish investment in Thailand.
It operates a factory manufacturing high quality disposable latex examination gloves, both powder-free and pre-powdered, dedicated to dentists, veterinary surgeons and health care professional.
As a result of permanent investment in improvement of production lines and technologies, the Company has been successfully acquiring clients from all over the world.” onload=”closed”][simnor_toggle heading=”HBV – blood-derivative infection” text=”The risk of infection of health care personnel is ten times higher than in case of the general population.A virus may persist at least one week on objects and in rooms contaminated with blood. HBV is a legally recognised carcinogenic factor.
Anti-infection prevention involves protective vaccination, proper hygiene and use of barrier protective appare.” onload=”closed”][simnor_toggle heading=”HCV – blood-derivative infection” text=”The hepatitis C virus is present in blood, but it has also been detected in saliva and water contaminated with sewage. Key facts about HCV:
- 170 million people infected worldwide,
- risk of infecting through single sticking with an infected needle 1.2-10%,in 80% of infected individuals, chronic liver inflammation develops, in 20% – cirrhosis or liver dysfunction after about 10-20 years, liver cancer – after 20-40 years,
- HCV is a legally recognised carcinogenic factor.
Due to the lack of a vaccination, application of septic procedures is recommended.” onload=”closed”][simnor_toggle heading=”History of gloves” text=”The most popular raw material used for production of gloves is natural rubber latex, commonly known as “rubber”, which was previously known and used by the Ancient Aztecs and Mayas. Rubber was brought to Europe in the 15th century by Christopher Columbus.
In the middle of the 19th century, experiments connected with this raw material started in the context of glove production. In 1834, in New Jersey, Richard Cook proposed the use of obstetrician gloves made of “Indian rubber”, which were “totally impermeable for most pathogenic viruses”.
The studies of Charles Goodyear in the 1840s, connected with the improvement of the vulcanisation process, also contributed to further development of the manufacturing technology of gloves used by surgeons and gynaecologists.
In 1883 Dr Joseph Colt Bloodgood equipped a whole team of surgeons with gloves and collected data to prove a decrease in infection among patients. However, the resistance of medical personnel against using gloves still existed, justified by their reduced feeling while examining patients. These protests began declining with the progress in the improvement of medical gloves, in particular, from the 1930s when the development of latex production started.
In the 1950s and 1960s, revolutionary changes in technology occurred.
Nowadays, major attention is paid to reducing the protein content responsible for allergies; studies are also conducted on preventive methods of sensitisation and irritation.
Medical gloves made of alternative raw materials are being introduced onto the markets, such as nitrile, neoprene, polyisoprene and mixtures of synthetic polymers.
In spite of the diversity of raw materials used for production of medical gloves, latex gloves, which are biodegradable and create a barrier for viruses and bacteria, are still the most popular medical product and personal protection measure.” onload=”closed”][simnor_toggle heading=”HIV infection” text=”The infecting material includes blood and bodily fluids, as well as semen and vaginal excretion. This virus causes AIDS. Maintaining hygiene and septic procedures is recommended. ” onload=”closed”][simnor_toggle heading=”Hospital infections” text=”Hospital infection is a type of infection which did not occur and which was not developing when the patient was admitted to the hospital. It may emerge during the period of hospital stay and after discharging the patient. The source of the hospital infection may be patient’s own bacterial flora or the external environment. It may be generated by any type of infecting factors, i.e. viruses, bacteria, fungi, parasites or prions.
Patients particularly exposed to hospital infections include:
- diabetic patients,
- patients treated with glyco-corticosteroids,
- dehydrated patients,
- patients treated with immuno-suppressive, cytotoxic preparations, radiation energy,
- patients with immunological defects,
- patients with burns, polytrauma, cirrhosis, cancer,
- infants and the elderly.
” onload=”closed”][simnor_toggle heading=”Infection prevention – pre-exposure prevention” text=”
- Training of personnel
- Protective vaccination
- Applying infection control rules
- Observing the procedures of decontamination of surfaces and equipment
- Adequate techniques of hand washing and disinfection
- Using personal protective equipment
- Adequate procedure in case of biologically contaminated medical material