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Accelerators Chemicals catalysts that speed the cross-linking process of glove manufacturing
Allergen detection tests suitable examinations aimed at allergen detection; carried out after antihistaminic medicines are no longer administered; e.g. skin test
Allergens, allergenic substances substances capable of causing allergies; type of antigens; these could be either proteins foreign to the organism, or bodies of simpler chemical structure, called haptenes, capable of stimulating the organism to produce antibodies
Allergy, sensitisation abnormal, excessively intensive reaction of the organism to agents that normally do not cause any unusual reactions in non-allergic people; individual trait; hypersensitivity to substances considered to be safe, during which the forces of the immune system are mobilised against it
Anaphylactic shock a sudden reaction of the organism, occurring several minutes after the contact with the allergen; the most frequent symptoms comprise: dizziness, headache, urticaria, skin hyperaemia, erythema, drop in blood pressure accompanied by tachycardia, paleness, spastic stomach-aches, nausea, vomiting, diarrhoea, bronchi spasms resulting in asthma attacks, breathlessness, collapse, larynx oedema, circulation arrest
Antigen Substance recognised by the immune system, against which a defensive action is initiated
Antiseptics process aimed at the removal of micro-organisms from the skin, mucous membranes and wounds with the use of chemicals
AQL (Acceptable Quality Level) Acceptable level of quality; usually applies to the product tightness, but may refer to other features, such as resistance; the limit of average permissible deviations in the manufacturing process; the methodology of AQL marking is described in EN 455-1
Aseptic action aimed at the prevention of infections and contamination with micro-organisms
Atopy congenital, or acquired during the foetal stage, hypersensitivity to protein-related substances, plant pollen, some foods, bacteria, moulds, medicines, cosmetics
Bacteria unicellular organisms, one of groups from the non-nucleated kingdom
CE CE marking is a form of the manufacturer’s declaration that his product meets the requirements of all directives that apply to it; the manufacturer (or his authorised representative) puts the CE marking on the product himself
CE Declaration of Conformity a document issued by the manufacturer (or his authorised representative), asserting that the manufactured product is compliant with the principal requirements of the applicable directive (or more of these); each declaration of conformity should contain the following information:name and address of the manufacturer (and his authorised representative) that has issued the declaration, product identification (name, type, model, code etc.), number of the directive with which the product is compliant, declaration issue date, signature of the person in charge, statement confirming that the declaration has been issued upon sole responsibility of the manufacturer (or his authorised representative), name address and ID number of the notifying body, if it has been involved in the compliance assessment procedure.
Chemicals added in the glove production process agents responsible for physical properties of gloves; these arepreservatives, stabilisers, accelerators, vulcanisers, antioxidants, dyes, talc
Contact allergens allergens active in result of contact with the skin
Contact skin inflammation (allergy, type I) in its appearance it resembles rash, which may appear within 12-36 hours after contact with an allergen took place; usually, changes occur on the skin of people using latex gloves, but may also appear in other areas, to which latex adhered.Eczemic changes of the hand occur mostly on the dorsal surface of the palm, above metacarpal and finger joints, within the ball of the thumb, small finger hypothenar, the wrist and the distal part of the forearm.The skin is dry, with visible cracks and indurations of the epidermis.
Delayed allergenic reactions (allergy, type IV) usually caused by chemical added in the glove production process; the most popular allergens are: benzothiazoles, thiocarbamoyls (tetramethylene thiocarbamoyl disulfide), ditiocarbaminians, thiourea derivatives, phenols; the allergy appears within 6-48 hours from contact with the allergen; allergenic reaction is usually local, limited to the area where skin came in contact with the glove; when the allergen has been removed, symptoms may persist for another 3-4 weeks; symptoms: itching, the skin is dry, with visible cracks and indurations of the epidermis; in more severe cases – skin ulceration on the hands
Disinfection process aimed at the destruction of a highest possible number of microbes and the destruction of all vegetative forms of pathogenic bacteria
EN 455-1 standard referring to disposable gloves, which lists requirements and methods of product tightness testing
EN 455-2 standard referring to disposable gloves, which lists requirements and testing methods with respect to product physical properties
EN 455-3 standard referring to disposable gloves, which lists requirements and product testing methods in the biological assessment process, does not specify the protein level and does not define a non-allergenic glove, specifying only test methods
Examination gloves gloves designed for medical examinations and diagnoses, therapeutic activities and works with septic materials
Germs colloquial name of pathogenic microbes
Glove role minimisation of infections among medical personnel during contact with the patient, prevention of microbe propagation to other patients; minimisation of infection risk in the patient by medical personnel, mostly in operations on open organism; protection against epidermis injuries
Health condition of full physical, psychological and social well-being; in a narrower sense – lack of disease or defect
Health protection a multi-level activity aimed at the creation of optimal health environment for humans
Hygiene science whose purpose is the cognition of influence of the external environment on human health and the organism’s reaction to this influence; removal of adverse factors from the environment and replacing them with beneficial ones, in order to ensure human health protection and a full psychological and physical development
Immediate reactions during regular, repeated exposure to the allergen (latex), the following symptoms occur:itching, skin reddening, skin oedema, sneezing, coryza, catarrh
Immune system defensive mechanism of the organism, acting against substances present in the air, foods and surrounding objects
Immunoglobulins antibodies produced by the organism, when immune system cells encounter a specific substance and flag it as foreign; immunoglobulins are present in circulating blood and in most body fluids.There are 5 immunoglobulin classes:IgG, IgA, IgM, IgD, IgE.IgE class is responsible for most allergic reactions. Allergy-susceptible persons often have a higher level of IgE in their blood, in comparison with other people.
Infection set of pathological syndromes resulting from the action of pathogenic factors on the organism, after organism protective barriers have been overcome
Irritation-related allergy has no allergic background; the allergy on the skin of the hands is caused by mechanical irritation, such as washing hands with a rough brush, detergents and solvents; use of talc-coated gloves; putting on gloves on moist hands, excessive sweating of hands, insufficient hygiene; it is manifested through reddening, erythema and blisters on skin surface has no allergic background; the allergy on the skin of the hands is caused by mechanical irritation, such as washing hands with a rough brush, detergents and solvents; use of talc-coated gloves; putting on gloves on moist hands, excessive sweating of hands, insufficient hygiene; it is manifested through reddening, erythema and blisters on skin surface
Latex the most popular raw material used in the production of gloves – resin produced by rubber trees,Hevea Brasiliensis, which grow in their natural environment in Malaysia, Indonesia, China, South American countries; chemically, it is a composition of polyisoprene fragments, surrounded by phospholipoproteins and a suspension containing saccharides, fats, ashes, nucleic acids and mineral elements
Neoprene gloves neoprene is a synthetic latex with good immersion characteristics; neoprene gloves are characterised by high elasticity, and they adapt well to the shape of the hand, are resistant to ketones, acids, hydrocarbons, oils and fats as well as organic solvents.
Nitrile gloves synthetic gloves, made of nitrile, fairly well adapting to the shape of the hand; are resistant to organic solvents, alcohols, oils, fats, acids, hydrocarbons; they boast a high resistance to abrasion, tear and punctures, constituting at the same time a good protective barrier against viruses and bacteria in high infection risk environments; may bring about allergenic reactions type IV
Package marking Packages should bear information referring to: number of pieces or pairs, storage conditions, CE marking, and with respect to surgical gloves – CE marking with the number of the notifying body; expiration date, batch number, sterilisation date, identification of the sterilisation method, manufacturer’s code, distributor’s code, left/right marking on the internal envelope of a surgical glove package, size marking, recommendation to remove excess talc in an aseptic and effective manner, and information on latex products, stating that they may have allergenic effect.On glove packages, it is not necessary to mark the following:protein level, AQL, and standards that the product complies with.
Powder usually, modified starch (maize meal – USP); currently, magnesium silicate is no longer used; starch (maize meal) is used as a substance helping put on the gloves; in the manufacturing process, it is used as a substance preventing the adhesion of gloves to moulds.
Powder -free gloves usually, powder is removed during chlorination (chlorination takes place through lavage of the gloves in a chlorine water solution for 15 mins.; internal and external surface of the glove is then covered by chlorine); the chlorination process modifies the product surface, whose consequence is a reduction of the friction factor by 50% and the content of latex proteins; another method comprises the use of a polymer, a synthetic material, as a layer insulating the hand from the latex layer; to this end, polyacrylate, polyurethane and nitrile derivatives are usually applied – such talc-free gloves are often called copolymer gloves.
Proteins simple proteins built exclusively of amino acids
PVC polyvinyl chloride; it is a derivative of natural substances: petroleum and domestic salt; in the production of PVC gloves plasticizers are applied (20-70%), usually phthalates, which eliminate rigidity of gloves; PVC is resistant to most solvents; it dissolves or swells in cyclohexanone, tetrahydrofurane, pyridine, carbon disulfide; decomposes under the influence of light and temperature.
Surgical gloves gloves designed for use in invasive surgical treatment and in operations requiring sterile conditions
Synthetic gloves gloves made of materials other than natural latex; made e.g. of PVC, nitrile or neoprene
Vinyl gloves synthetic gloves, made of plasticized polyvinyl chloride, the cheapest in the synthetic gloves category, recommended to people allergic to latex; vinyl gloves, in comparison with latex gloves, are less flexible and do not adapt to the shape of the hand well; they have poorer resistance to tear and punctures, are a worse protective barrier than latex gloves and have a better chemical resistance than latex gloves.An advantage for their users is that they are odour-free; the disadvantage is the difficulty in carrying out jobs requiring precisions with the use of slippery metal tools.
Viruses biological entities at a size between 15-300 nm, characterized by a lack of cellular structure and own enzymatic systems.